Koolhaas Flames Out, Shantytowns Inform

Thursday, April 9, 2009

(photo: Alicia Nijdam/flickr)

The announcement that Rem Koolhaas would be the keynote speaker for the “Ecological Urbanism” conference at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD), which took place over three days last weekend, raised eyebrows, especially among sustainability-minded architects, landscape architects, and planners. Koolhaas had never shown any particular interest in the subject, and the fire at his TVCC Tower in Beijing was interpreted by many as a symbol of an era that had come to an end, ushering in more sustainable and responsible practices.

Those of us who admire and respect his projects, but also believe that our profession needs to go green to adapt to the 21st century, were hoping his speech would redeem his formerly blasé attitude toward sustainability and provide some clarification of why this seemingly odd choice for a keynote was made. No such luck. Despite the disappointing keynote speech, charged with needless attacks against talented colleagues, including Renzo Piano and Norman Foster, and no definitive resolution as to what Ecological Urbanism is or should be, the conference added provocative ideas to the discourse on sustainable architecture and planning. Along with the usual urban farms, solar panels, wind farms, and bioswales, there were innovative proposals that advocated for changes in technological and programmatic aspects of the profession, from Mitchell Joachim’s radical houses made of meat and compact electric transportation systems presented by MIT’s William Mitchell to proposals for highrise cemeteries and prisons in the middle of Manhattan by Spanish architect Inaki Abalos.

Probably one of the most enlightening talks, stripped from the glamour of sci-fi technologies or sexy images, was the breakout session on informal cities in Latin America led by Christian Werthmann, Associate Professor and Program Director at the Department of Landscape Architecture at the GSD. He conducts what he calls “dirty work,” a research initiative on upgrading informal cities. Despite the region’s slowing growth rate, lessons can be learned from the formation of favelas, barrios, or shantytowns. “The world has entered the urban millennium. Half the world’s people now live in cities and towns. That in itself marks a historic transition,” said then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, according to a 2005 UN-Habitat report. “But what will happen over the next 30 years is just as significant. According to United Nations projections, virtually all of the world’s population growth will occur in the urban areas of low- and middle-income countries. How we manage that growth will go a long way toward influencing the world’s future peace and prosperity.”

Werthmann told AN: “There are two fields of operation regarding informal settlements. One is to retrofit existing informal cities, and the other is how do you control or guide the future of informal cities.” In Latin America, there are examples like Brazil, where the government provides informal cities with communal infrastructure: water, electricity, health, sewage, and roads. But there are no comprehensive strategies. Other approaches involve community endeavors and grassroots movements. But how can cities prepare for this to create healthier communities? “That is a harder task. Nobody wants to give away their own land so people can build on it,” he said.

Favelas and slums have received a lot of attention in movies like City of God and Slumdog Millionaire, in which they are depicted as unsanitary and dangerous places. But there is more to them than violence and disease. Interestingly enough slums have many of the qualities that make thriving cities frequently promoted by urban planners: They are pedestrian-friendly, high-density, mixed-use, and made of recycled materials, usually debris from adjacent formal cities. “American and European cities could learn from these informal settlements as an example for low-rise, high-density development. They have an intensive street life, the public space is not much but well used, as opposed to the suburban model, which is completely inefficient,” Werthmann said. “There is a need for an in-between model, that is not the highrise of Manhattan or Sao Paulo.”

The overall sentiment of the conference was that urban living is the most sustainable way to live, so it was interesting that the counterpart of retrofitting shantytowns—fixing suburbia—didn’t come up. It would have been nice to see more ideas like that and less of distant, zero-carbon cities for a privileged few, like Foster’s Masdar project in Abu Dhabi.

8 Responses to “Koolhaas Flames Out, Shantytowns Inform”

  1. Marcos Barinas Uribe says:

    Good article.
    I think that all this new fad on “retrofitting shantitown” remind me of ecotourism. As soon as all-inclusive hotels are packed of tourists, now local towns and protected areas become atractive. It is more a business than a real intention of assuming the problematics of locale. As soon as this global city ( should we say corporate ) comes to and end or to a shift in intention, now shantytowns become a source of analysis and observation by think tanks.

    “Ahora resulta que la pobreza es bella”

  2. Eva Provedel says:

    Excellent article. I remember walking through the favela of Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro, and being surprised at how industrious and creative the people who lived there were, and how they managed to even have internet cafes and make the best use possible of second-hand material. This could be repeated with recycling. With less waste, everybody gains. Perhaps America, one of the most wasteful countries in the world, may learn something from this.

  3. Klaus says:

    For some details on Koolhaas’ conference in Ecological urbanism: http://klaustoon.wordpress.com/2009/04/09/koolhaas-at-harvard-ecological-urbanism-i/

  4. Craig Hodgetts says:

    Interesting gap in worldviews. Architects, of course, always want to “tidy things up” visually, structurally,socially. No messy vitality for them. But until architects (including me) become more tolerant of the inevitable messsiness of human life, there will continue to be this sort of emasculating stand-off ( sorry ladies, I don’t think there’s a gender-neutral equivalent ). Even the mechanisms of development seem stymied by the disconnect, which is nearly unbridgeable without some kind of massive intervention. Maybe GM should donate the tooling for the happily dead Hummer for cheap housing. Probably big enough for a family of four, its waterproof, and has its own heating, air conditioning, and audio systems.

  5. Pharma59 says:

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  6. mariahealki says:


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  7. 132 says:


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